Glycobiology_Ban

Glycobiology & Proteomics

Glycobiology is the study of the structure, function and biology of carbohydrates, often called glycans, which are widely distributed in nature (1). It is a small but rapidly growing field in biology, with relevance to biomedicine, biotechnology, biofuels and basic research. In eukaryotic cells the majority of proteins are post-translationally modified (2). A common modification, essential for cell viability, is the attachment of glycans. For a visual representation, see the N-linked and O-linked glycosylation tab below.

Glycans define many properties of glycoconjugates (glycoproteins and glycolipids). For instance, it is largely through glycan–protein interactions that cell–cell and cell–pathogen contacts occur. Likewise, glycan molecules modulate many other processes important for cell and tissue differentiation, metabolic and gene regulation, protein activity, protein clearance, transport, and more (3-10). For more information, see the role of carbohydrates in the inflammation response tab below.

References

  1. Spiro, R. G. (2002) Glycobiology 12, 43R-56R. PMID: 112042244
  2. Khoury G.A. et al (2011) Scientific Reports 1: 90. PMID: 22034591
  3. Varki A. (1993) Glycobiology. 3(2):97-130. PMID: 8490246
  4. Zhao Y.Y. et al (2008) Cancer Sci. 99(7):1304-10. PMID: 18492092
  5. Zhao Y. et al (2008) FEBS J. 275(9):1939-48. PMID: 18384383
  6. Skropeta D. (2009) Bioorg Med Chem. 17(7):2645-53. PMID: 19285412
  7. Neu U. et al (2011) Curr Opin Struct Biol. 21(5):610-8. PMID: 21917445
  8. Cerliani J.P. et al (2011) J Clin Immunol. 31(1):10-21. PMID: 21184154
  9. Aarnoudse C.A. et al (2006) Curr Opin Immunol. 18(1):105-11. PMID: 16303292
  10. Arnold J.N. (2006) Immunol Lett. 106(2):103-10. PMID: 16814399

Glycobiology & Proteomics includes these areas of focus:

Biosynthesis of Glycans in Eukaryotes
Depolymerization of Heparin/HS
MS Analysis of GAGs
Removal of N-Linked & O-Linked Glycans from Glycoproteins
Sequencing Glycans
Glycoprotein Production in Various Expression Systems

FAQs for Glycobiology & Proteomics

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N-Linked and O-Linked Glycosylation

N-linked glycosylation occurs through consensus asparagine residues of the protein, while O-glycosylation occurs through serine or threonine residues.